Download e-book for kindle: A Theory of Philosophical Fallacies by Leonard Nelson (auth.)

By Leonard Nelson (auth.)

ISBN-10: 3319207822

ISBN-13: 9783319207827

ISBN-10: 3319207830

ISBN-13: 9783319207834

Presented as a Vorlesung within the German philosophical culture, this ebook provides the main special account of Nelson’s approach to argument research, celebrated by means of many luminaries corresponding to Karl Popper. It was once written in 1921 towards the relativistic, subjectivistic and nihilistic traits of Nelson’s time. The ebook comprises an exposition of a style that could be a extra improvement of Kant’s transcendental dialectics, via an software to the severe research of arguments through many recognized thinkers, together with Bentham, Mill, Poincaré, Leibniz, Hegel, Einstein, Bergson, Rickert, Simmel, Brentano, Stammler, Jellinek, Dingler, and Meinong. The booklet provides a basic concept of philosophical argumentation as obvious from the point of view of the common fallacies devoted by way of anyone arguing philosophically, even if expert philosophers or philosophical laypeople. even if the character of philosophy and philosophical argumentation is likely one of the such a lot recurrent items of mirrored image for philosophers, this publication represents the 1st try at a normal concept of philosophical fallacy. in line with Nelson, it's within the form of fake dilemmas that error in reasoning regularly emerge, and fake dilemmas are regularly the results of an identical mechanism--the unwitting alternative of 1 idea for another.

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This faculty is what I called our feeling for the truth. If we look more closely at what philosophers of intellectual intuition appeal to, we will in fact discover that they misinterpret the scope and power of that feeling for the truth in their work. It is therefore important to clarify what exactly this feeling for the truth is and investigate what its relationship is to reasoning. Let us assume for the sake of argument not only that there is such a feeling (after all, we all know it from experience), but also that there are good prima facie reasons to trust it.

In brief, he assumes that it is worthwhile in the long run for the individual to value the interests of his fellow man as he would value his own, and so to abandon his pleasure wherever this would result in a decrease of pleasure in the community. Thus, he is led to establish, as an ethical proposition, that the greatest happiness of the greatest number is the ethical ideal, a proposition which incidentally, as I said, not only rests on an arbitrary assumption, but has other logical weaknesses as well.

The importance of this task, particularly for philosophy, is clear from what I said earlier. Yet it is not self-evident that the identification and critique of dialectical errors is significant for any given subject. A logical critique of this type is unnecessary for fields of research that derive their results from the sources of intuition, or at least it does not have anything like the importance and significance that it does in philosophy. For in those fields we have intuition, which yields sufficient clarity about its objects.

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A Theory of Philosophical Fallacies by Leonard Nelson (auth.)

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